The principal astronomical observatory of theRussian Academy of Sciences, located 19 km south of Saint Petersburg on Pulkovo Heights 75 metres (246 ft) above sea level. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments. The scientific activity of the Observatory covers almost all priority directions of fundamental research of modern astronomy: celestial mechanics and stellar dynamics, astrometry (geometric and kinematic parameters of the Universe), the Sun and solar-terrestrial relations, physics and evolution of stars, extragalactic astronomy, instrumentation and methods of astronomical observations.
The main tools: Zenith-telescope-Freiberg-Kondratiev (STV-135), Telescope-refractor (D=650 mm, F=10413 mm), Horizontal solar telescope (ACO-5) (D=44.0 cm, the focus of Newton's F=17.5 m, the Cassegrain focus F=64 m), Large Pulkovo radio telescope (BPR) the prototype of the world's largest radio telescope RATAN-600, Mirror astrograph ZA-320M (D=300 mm, F=3200 mm, field of view 27'x27'). The Observatory regularly hosts scientific lectures, presentations and excursions.